A Descriptive Literature Review of Harmful Leadership Styles: Definitions, Commonalities, Measurements, Negative Impacts, and Ways to Improve These Harmful leadership Styles

Wallace A Burns

Abstract


There are many ineffective leadership types — the egotistic leader, the incompetent leader, the ignorant leader, and leaders that are reckless, cruel, or even evil.  To understand what ultimately are considered leadership traits that are contrary to good order, discipline and productivity, the author conducted a review of the literature to obtain a current typology (the grouping of items by their similarities) of selected ineffective leadership styles — specific styles that are counter to enabling others to succeed, overcome challenges, achieve desired results, and create a positive environment in which to work.  The paper defined several ineffective leadership styles, including those considered toxic, abusive, bullying, and disruptive; and set these in context with each other and within the domain of leadership in general.  Commonalities, measurements and negative impacts of and ways to improve these ineffective leadership styles were identified from the literature and discussed.  Finally, broad conclusions on the way ahead were drawn.


Keywords


toxic leadership, abusive leadership, bullying, destructive leadership, toxic leadership scale

Full Text:

PDF

References


References

Aasland, M. S., Skogstad, A., Notelaers, G., Nielsen, M. B., & Einarsen, S. (2010). The Prevalence of Destructive Leadership Behaviour. British Journal of Management, 21, 438-542.

Aryee, S., Chen, Z. X., Sun, L.-Y., & Debrah, Y. A. (2007). Antecedents and Outcomes of Abusive Supervision: Test of a Trickle-Down Model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 191–201.

Box, J. E. (2012). Toxic Leadership in the Military Profession. Carlisle Barracks, PA: United States Army War College.

Einarsen, S., Aasland, M. S., & Skogstad, A. (2007). Destructive leadership behaviour: A definition and conceptual model. The Leadership Quarterly, 18, 207-216.

Elle, S. A. (2012). Breaking the Toxic Leadership Paradigm in the U.S. Army. Carlisle Barracks, VA: US Army War College.

Gallus, J. A., Walsh, B. M., Driel, M. v., Gouge, M. C., & Antolic, E. (2013). Intolerable Cruelty: A Multilevel Examination of the Impact of Toxic Leadership on U.S. Military Units and Service Members. Military Psychology, 25(6), 88–601.

Johnson, R. E., Venus, M., Lanaj, K., Mao, C., & Chang, C.-H. (2012). Leader Identity as an Antecedent of the Frequency and Consistency of Transformational, Consideration, and Abusive Leadership Behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 6, 1262–1272.

Jowers, K. (2015, November 19). Toxic leadership's effect on families. Marine Corps Times, p. 19.

Kiazad, K., Restubog, S. L., Zagenczyk, T. J., Kiewitz, C., & Tang, R. L. (2010). In pursuit of power: The role of authoritarian leadership in the relationship between supervisors’ Machiavellianism and subordinates’ perceptions of abusive supervisory behavior. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 512-519.

Lipman-Blumen, J. (2005). Toxic Leadership: A Conceptual Framework. Claremont, CA: Claremont Graduate University.

Mawritz, M. B., Mayer, D. M., Hoobler, J. M., Wayne, S. J., & Marinova, S. V. (2012). A Trickle-Down Model of Abusive Supervision. Personnel Psychology, 65, 325-357.

Norton, R. J. (2016). Tarnished: Toxic Leadership in the U.S. Military (Book review). Naval War College Review, 69(2), 143-145.

Pelletier, K. L. (2010). Leader toxicity: An empirical investigation of toxic behavior and rhetoric. Leadership, 6(4), 373–389.

Reed, G. E. (2004). Toxic Leadership. Military Review, July-August, 67-71.

Reed, G. E., & Bullis, R. C. (2009). Impact of Destructive Leadership on Senior Military Officers and Civilian Employees. Armed Forces & Society, 36(1), 5-18.

Reed, G. E., & Olsen, R. A. (2010). Toxic leadership: Part Deaux. Military review, November-December, 58-64.

Schmidt, A. A. (2008). Development and Validation of the Toxic Leadership Scale. College Park: University of Maryland.

Schmidt, A. A. (2014). An Examination of Toxic Leadership, Job Outcomes, and the Impact of Military Deployment. College Park: University of Maryland.

Steele, J. P. (2011). Antecedents and consequences of toxic leadership in the U.S. Army: A two year review and recommended solutions. Center for Army Leadership, June, 1-37.

Tavanti, M. (2011). Managing Toxic Leaders: Dysfunctional Patterns in Organizational Leadership and How to Deal with Them. Human Resource Management, University of Lodz, 6, 127-136.

Tepper, B. J. (2007). Abusive Supervision in Work Organizations: Review, Synthesis, and Research Agenda. Journal of Management, June, 33(3), 261-516.

Tepper, B. J., Duffy, M. K., Hoobler, J., & Ensley, M. D. (2004). Moderators of the Relationships Between Coworkers’ Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Fellow Employees’ Attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(3), 455-465.

Williams, D. F. (2005). Toxic Leadership In The U.S. Army. Carlisle Barracks, PA: US Army War College.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17062/cjil.v3i1.53

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.